這個作業的目標是要研究五大洲上曾經興起的古文明的宗教/神話。因為我想要比較這些文明的文化、信仰、和服裝,我選擇了五個時代相近的文明。
我觀察了很多很多神明的圖畫和雕像、確定時代對不對、還有讀了關於這些神明的文字解釋,已確定我能真正了解這些文物。當我沒能找到在我要畫的神明當時的時代製作出來的圖像或雕像時,我觀察了比它早或晚的作品來找當時神明外表的提示。
因為這些古老的圖像都會將神明的外表造型化,我盡量將我畫的圖真實化以更容易比較這些人物。我也用Photoshop來製造質感和陰影。
My goal was to research the ancient religions/myths of civilizations on five different continents, and by choosing civilizations that existed around the same time, I can compare the cultures, beliefs, and costumes of the peoples.

I observed many, many drawings, paintings, and sculptures of religious/mythical figures, made sure the dates were right, and read descriptions of these figures to make sure I know what I was looking at. If I was not able to find a representation of the figure created during that period, I looked to works of earlier or later periods as hints of what the figure during the designated period would look like.
After much research, I would transform the stylism of these ancient drawings and sculptures to a more realistic figure so that it's easier to compare the costumes of each period. I used Photoshop to create more detailed textures and shading.


閃電
N
amargon 

被阿那母當地原住民稱作閃電男的那馬爾公是阿那母平原發生閃電的原因。祂用綁在身上的石斧將雲砍破來製造雷聲。石斧是以麻繩綁在祂的頭、頸、腰、和膝蓋。祂身體上的圖畫是以白黏土
figure1塗的X光設計。在古老岩畫上,祂常常被一圈閃電或雲朵圍繞著。

Known to the aboriginals of Arnhem Land as the Lightning Man, Namargon is the cause of the thunderstorms that happen on the Arnhem plateau. He uses the stone axes tied to his body to split the clouds and create thunder. Stone axes are tied with hemp ropes to his head, neck, waist, and knees. His body is painted with X-ray art designs of white clay. In the rock paintings he is surrounded by a circle of lightning bolts or clouds.

閃電男 Namargon
 
彩虹蛇
Rainbow Snake

在澳洲北部地帶流行著的彩虹蛇是和水、生育力、和生命有關的神明。祂號稱是當地原住民的祖先。有公有母,這隻蛇爬行的路徑會出現河床。在阿那母地的信仰裡,彩虹蛇是生育之母,而在每年雨季之前被
figure3祭祀。以時在祭祀典禮中,祂彎曲的身體可以在空中被看見。彩虹蛇在阿那母地的岩畫中有很多體態。這個畫像有鴕鴯的頭、女人的上半身、人的一隻手、採紅色的蛇的身軀、和一隻人的腿當尾巴。 

Popular in the northern regions of Australia, the Rainbow Snake is a mythical being associated with water, fertility, and life. It is seen as an ancestor of the aboriginal people. Portrayed both in male and female forms, the serpent is responsible for creating river banks wherever it travels. In the beliefs of Arnhem Land it is the Fertility Mother, and is celebrated annually before the wet season. Sometimes during the rituals, the Rainbow Snake can be seen arching its body across the sky. The Rainbow Snake is portrayed in many different forms in the rock paintings of Arnhem Land. This depiction consists of an emu’s head, a woman’s torso with only one arm, a snake’s body with rainbow colours, and a human leg as the tail.

 彩虹蛇 Rainbow Snake  
 河洛斯 Horus   河洛斯
HorusCapture  

河洛斯,又稱天主,代表著神聖的王位。埃及法老是被視為「活著的河洛斯」,也因為這樣,他們有神明的許可統治王朝。在埃及神話中,河洛斯和哥哥賽斯互鬥爭取王位。有一次,兩位神變形成河馬比賽誰能在水裡待比較久。塞斯不知道的是河洛斯和母親艾塞絲串通好要艾賽絲用魚叉把在水裡的賽斯刺死。但是艾塞絲最後違反約定。生氣的河洛斯攻擊母親後逃到沙漠裡,不過最後還是被賽斯抓到。塞斯把祂的眼睛割出來。幸運地,哈索爾用羚羊奶將祂的眼睛醫好。河洛斯的眼成了「烏加特」眼,是完美的象徵。從頭到腳,河洛斯穿著太陽盤、金和瓷的眼鏡蛇、尼姆斯頭飾、串珠項鍊、串珠臂環、有肩帶的筒狀上衣、腰帶、串朱手環、盛會短裙、獅子尾巴、和串朱腳環。祂有著獵鷹的頭,手持著牧羊人的拐杖和埃及象形文字裡代表生命之鑰的「安克」。

Horus, Lord of the Sky, represents divine kingship. The Pharaoh is seen as the “living Horus,” and therefore has the approval of the gods to rule the kingdom. Horus is said to have competed for the throne against his elder brother Seth. In one occasion, the two gods transform into hippopotamuses to see who can stay underwater longer. Unknown to Seth, Horus had planned for his mother, Isis, to kill Seth with a harpoon while he is submerged. However, Isis backs out. An enraged Horus attacks his mother and runs into the desert, only to be found by Seth, who cuts his eyes out. Fortunately Hathor manages to restore his eyes with gazelle’s milk. Horus’ eyes thus become the “udjat” eye, a symbol of the state of perfection. From top to bottom, Horus dons a sun disc, a gold-and-enamel uraeus, Nemes headdress, a beaded collar, beaded armlets, a short tubular garment with straps, a sash, beaded bracelets, a gala skirt, the lion’s tail, and beaded anklets. He has the head of a falcon, and holds a shepherd’s crook and the hieroglyphic “ankh,” the key of life.

 哈索爾 Hathor    
哈索爾
Hathorfigure13  

日神拉的女兒,埃及法老象徵性的母親,哈索爾一位複雜而多樣性的女神。祂被看作是喪神,也是治療與生產的神。祂和姓愛、音樂、和舞蹈有關。傳說祂有一次在拉為何洛斯和塞斯的爭鬥生氣時,在拉面前裸體跳舞,讓父親忍不住笑了出來。哈索爾以頭上的牛角最具代表性,兩角中有一個太陽盤。祂穿著金的眼鏡蛇、用乾草墊起的假髮、金頭環、眼鏡蛇耳環、串珠項鍊、有肩帶的筒狀連身裙、串朱臂環、手環、和腳環。祂拿著安克符號,裙子也佈滿著象形文字。黑墨的眼妝保護著祂的眼睛不被太陽照射。

Daughter of the sun-god Re and symbolic mother of the Pharaoh, Hathor is a complex deity who embodies many elements: she is seen as a funerary goddess, as well as the goddess of healing and childbirth. She is also associated with sexual love, music, and dance, and it is said that Hathor once calmed Re from a tantrum over the competition between Horus and Seth by dancing naked in front of him until he burst out laughing. Hathor is recognized by the cow horns on the top of her head, between which lies a sun disc. She also dons a gold uraeus, a big wig padded with rushes, a gold fillet, uraeus earrings, a beaded collar, a kalasiris with straps, and beaded armlets, bracelets, and anklets. She also holds the ankh sign, and her dress is covered with hieroglyphic writing. Kohl eye makeup protects her eyes from the blazing sun.


 
捷豹人
Were-Jaguar

捷豹人是有關雨和土的神話人物。祂們是一隻公捷豹和母人類的小孩。為何狩獵的捷豹會和農業有關仍然是迷。一個解釋是因為捷豹薩滿的信仰接管了比較老的奧爾梅克的土蛇信仰。捷豹人最明顯是豹的遺傳的特徵是祂們下垂的嘴角。

figure21The were-jaguars are mythical beings associated with rain and earth. They are the offspring of a jaguar father and a human mother. The mystery of how the hunting jaguar became associated with agricultural elements is under debate. One of the convincing explanations for this question is that the cult of the jaguar-shamans took over the older Olmec civilization, who worshiped the cult of the Earth Serpent. The most apparent hint of the feline ancestry of were-jaguars is their downward-curving mouths.

     捷豹人 Were-Jaguar
水女神
Chalchiuhtlicue

查起奧立枯是阿茲提克文明的水女神。祂的根源可能是古奧爾梅克信仰,尤其是玉米農夫的宗教。祂受奧爾梅克影響的暗示可以在祂的穿著中找到。古奧爾梅克的玉米農夫信從土蛇。他們認為土蛇的嘴是火山的口,釋放出煙和水來滋潤他們的農地。水女神帶著一條菱形紋路的皮帶和穿著一個有蛇皮和羊毛邊的斗篷。其他明顯的奧爾梅克特徵有祂大大圓圓的耳環和頭飾中間
figure22的凹陷。「查起奧立枯」可以被翻譯成「玉裙的小姐」,所以祂的裙是玉綠色的。這也可以連想到蛇紋石,又是一個土蛇的暗示。

Chalchiuhtlicue is the Water Goddess of the Aztec Civilization. It is believed that she traces her origins to the beliefs of ancient Olmec, especially the agricultural religions of the maize planters. Hints of Chalchiuhtlicue’s Olmec origins can be found throughout her costume. The maize planters of ancient Olmec believed in the Earth Serpent, its mouth being the mouth of the volcano that releases smoke and water to fertilize their farms. The water goddess dons a diamond-patterned girdle and a poncho trimmed with snake-skin and wool. Other obvious hints of Olmec influence are the big circular earrings and the cleft at the top of her headdress. Chalchiuhtlicue can be translated to “Lady of the Jade Skirts.” Therefore, her skirt is of a jade green, and this also hints “serpentine,” again referencing to snakes.

 水女神 Chalchiuhtlicue  
 后羿 Yi   后羿
Yi

后羿的神話是在周朝後期建立的,而在漢朝時非常流行。后羿    有名的是他射下九個太陽的故事。在中國古神話裡,有十個太陽會輪流出來照耀大地。在夏朝皋陶統治時,它們厭惡了這個常規而全部一起出來,燒壞了農作物,使河
Capture流乾枯而土地龜裂。皋陶請后羿救人民。后羿從天降下來而射下了九個太陽。最後一個太陽聽從后羿的指令,回復了每天規律的生活。另外一個有名的故事是后羿個妻子嫦娥偷了西王母賜給后羿的仙丹。吃下了仙丹後,嫦娥一飄就飄到了月亮上面,永遠無法回地球來。這個故事每年中秋節時都會被講。雖然后羿的神話是在周朝時建立的,到了漢朝才有他外表的紀錄。從頭到腳的穿著,射手頭髮用絲巾綁著包、窄袖的內衣、寬袖的刺繡外袍、腰帶、和腳尖翹起的鞋。紅白的射箭是上帝賜給他的。

The myth of Yi was established during the late Zhou period, and became very popular during the Han Dynasty. Yi is known for shooting down nine of the ten suns that were causing drought during the reign of Emperor Gao Yao of the Xia Dynasty. In Chinese mythology, there were ten suns that took turns each day to shine on the earth. However, during the reign of Gao Yao, they got tired of this routine and all came out simultaneously, scorching the crops, drying out the rivers, and cracking the land. Seeing this, Gao Yao asked for Yi to save the people. Yi came down from the heavens and shot nine of the suns. The last sun obeyed Yi’s commands and resumed its routine of coming out during the day. Another well-known story of Yi is the story of his wife, Change, who stole the drug of immortality given to Yi by the Queen Mother of the West. After taking the drug, Change finds herself floating all the way to the moon, never able to return to Earth. This story is told every year during the Mid-Autumn Moon Festival. Although the myth of Yi was established in the late Zhou Dynasty, it is not until the Han Dynasty that we have records of his appearance. From top to bottom, the archer wears his hair in a bun and wrapped with a silk scarf, an undertunic with slim sleeves, a wrapped, embroidered robe with baggy sleeves, a sash to hold the robe together, and shoes with erected toes. The red bow and white arrows are given to him by the supreme God.


 女媧 Nuwa  
女媧
Nüwa


女蛙最早的紀錄是在《天問》裡,年代大約在西元前四世紀。祂是人類的創造者,用黃土和泥將他們捏造出來。貴族是用黃土做的,而平民是用泥巴。之後,為了確保人類可以一直延續下去,女媧和婚姻發原者伏羲結婚,並且教導人類學習祂。女媧被說有人類的頭和蛇的身體。祂最早的圖在一個漢朝的墳裡找到,是一個有著女子上半身而蛇的身體從外袍鑽出。祂帶著頭飾,拿著圓規用來測量世界。 

The earliest reference of Nüwa is in Questions of Heaven, dating around the fourth century BCE. She is the creator of human beings, molding them out of yellow earth and mud. The royalties were made the former material, and commoners the latter. Later, to ensure that t
Capturehe humans continue thriving, Nüwa marries Fuxi, the God of Marriage who created the marriage systems, and teaches humans to do the same. Nüwa is described to have the head of a human being and the body of a snake. The earliest depictions of her, found in a Han-Dynasty tomb, shows her with a full human torso and a snake body coming from beneath her tunic. She wears a headdress and holds a compass which she uses to measure the world.

 
阿波羅  
Apollo


在希臘古風時代之初,阿波羅已經是重要的神明。祂的來源不明。有些人認為祂是從小亞細亞傳來的,因為祂也叫利西安,從南海岸的利西亞來。祂的很多聖地都在那裏。在希臘神話的初期,阿波羅和疾病有關。祂的箭會感染所有祂攻擊的人。《伊里亞德》裡祂被稱做是「鼠王」。傳說中,當阿伽門農國王綁架
阿波羅特洛伊的祭司克萊希斯的女兒,克萊希斯要求阿波羅幫助他。阿波羅以可怕的傳染病殺死了許多。阿波羅頭上帶著桂冠。身上的短袍Capture是後古風時期的造型。當時的衣服變得柔軟而寬鬆,也通常有著摺皺。在短袍上,祂帶著釘在肩上有幾何圖形的斗篷。最後祂以皮帶將衣服繫好,也綁著祂的箭袋。祂的皮鞋用皮繩拉緊再將繩子纏繞腳踝。


At the beginning of the Archaic Period, Apollo has already been established as an important deity. His origins are unclear. Some think he may be from Asia Minor, for he is also called Lycian, from Lycia of the south coast; many sites dedicated to him can also be found in the area. During the earlier periods of Greek mythology, Apollo is associated with disease, his bows seen as the source of plague, infecting those whom he attacks.The Iliad refers to him as the “Lord of Mice.” It is said that when King Agamemnon kidnapped the daughter of Chryses, a Trojan priest of Apollo, the priest turned to Apollo for help and the god killed many with a horrific plague. Apollo can be recognized by the laurel wreath he wears on his head. The short chiton he wears is of the later Archaic period, when the style of clothing became wider and softer, often pleated or crinkled. On top of his chiton, the god wears a mantle pinned at one shoulder, woven with geometric designs. A leather girdle holds his clothing in place, and is also used to strap his quiver. His leather shoes or laced with leather straps that extend up and wrap around his ankles.

 阿波羅 Apollo  
雅典那
Athena


Capture  從宙斯的頭生出的永遠處女的雅典那是希臘許多南男英雄的守護者。這些英雄包括柏修斯、大力士、奧得修斯、和傑森。在和波賽塞登爭取雅典的保護權 時,波塞登賜與那城市祂的三叉,給城市商交業和水源。雅典那則給與城市一顆橄欖樹,代表著和平和木材、油、與食物。最後女神成為雅典城市的。雅典那通常被畫成 一位女戰士,帶著黃銅的頭盔和盾牌。祂穿的長袍在腰部有一個摺處,以織紋的腰帶繫著。袍前的直條是織到袍上的。雅典那有名的,有蛇邊的胸盔,是宙斯給祂作 保護用的。

Born from the head of Zeus, the forever-virgin goddess Athena is the protector of male heroes such as Perseus, Heracles, Odysseus, and Jason. In a competition with Poseidon over the patronage of the city of Athens, Poseidon presents his trident, giving the city a means of trade and water. Athena, on the other hand, gifts the city with an olive tree, representing peace, as well as wood, oil, and food. The goddess becomes the patroness of Athens. Athena is often depicted as female warrior, with a bronze helmet and shield. A long chiton has an apotygma to the waist and is girdled with a woven-patterned sash. The frontal band is woven into the chiton fabric. Her famous aegis, a cape/breastplate trimmed with snakes, was given to her by Zeus as a form of protection.
 雅典那  

羅寗 Michelle Ning Lo
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